India is the second most populated country in China having a population of 137 crores in 2019. The estimated number of diabetics in India are 70 million which means India has the highest number of diabetes in the world than any other country! And it is almost going to be 109 million in 2035.
“Study shows that Tamilnadu stands to the next after chandigarh as the most diabetic state” according to Indian council of medical research.
In a simple way to tell, Diabetes is a fault in body metabolism caused increased sugar levels in human body.
Inabilty to control the increased glucose levels affects mainly eyes, kidney and nervous system. Diabetes is a progressively degenerative diseases with severe complications like limb amputation, heart attack, stroke, kidney damage and loss of vision.
What happens in your body after consuming carbohydrates?
- When you consume carbohydrates (Eg. rice or potato),your body turns it into sugar called glucose and sends that to your bloodstream.
- Islets of langerhans present in pancreas helps to move glucose from your blood into the cells. Cells use glucose for energy.
“It’s a false belief that only eating burgers and pizza leads to diabetes. High consumption of fried items can also lead to diabetes” said HPV Sachdev,senior consultant pediatrics, Sitaram institute of Science and Research.
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes- Insulin dependent diabetes is also called Juvenile onset diabetes because it appears often in childhood. It is a autoimmune disease in which the soldiers of our body called “antibodies”dysfunction and attack your own pancreas.
Type 2 Diabetes– Among 90% of people have this type of diabetes. It’s also called non insulin dependent diabetes and also called adult onset diabetes. But for the last 20 years, it tends to occur in more young people and teens also. When you have type 2 diabetes, body create some insulin but muscle and liver cells doesn’t use the insulin as it should. It is called insulin resistance.
Gestational diabetes is a condition which occurs during the third trimester period. As said before, insulin is a switch that makes the cells in our body to absorb glucose.
The placenta which develops during pregnancy period is attached to the wall of the uterus and the umbilical cord of the baby arises from it. The placenta provides blood supply to the baby and also high levels of various other hormones.
The fluctuations in hormone levels impair the action of insulin in your cells raising your blood sugar. As the baby grows the insulin produce more and more insulin counteracting hormones.
Blood glucose will be reversed soon after delivery. Researchers don’t know why pregnant women develop gestational diabetes.
Factors affecting diabetes
1. Increased insulin resistance
The hypothesis is that small indian babies (generally are low birth weight) have smaller abdominal visera and low muscle mass but preserve body fat during their intrauterine development.
2. Stronger genetic factors in Indians
Genetic susceptibility occurs to play an important role in occurence of type 2 diabetes. It is caused by complex play genetic factors such as ( beta cell mass, insulin secretion,insulin action, fat distribution, obesity.)
3. Physical inactivity:
Currently, India is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition due to rapid urbanization.Economic development of the society have resulted in the dramatic change in lifestyle from traditional to modern, leading to physical inactivity due to technological development, consumption of diets rich in fat, sugar,calories and mental stress.
Obesity’s role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is complex. Further more, studies show that for any BMI, migrant Indians have higher body fat, and for given body fat, they also have higher insulin resistance compared to other ethnic groups.
People with diabetes can’t eat sugar” is a common misconception. People with diabetes should eat a diet that is balanced.
In India, as urbanization and economic growth occurs, people are forgetting our traditional and healthier dietery patterns.They are taking food in a wrong way!
- Substitution of unrefined wheat
- Substitution of rice with high polished rice
- High intake of refined cereals and carbohydrates
- High intake of saturated fatty acids develop a higher risk to glucose impaired tolerance rate whereas unsaturated fatty acids are inversely associated with risk of diabetes.
- Jaggery or brown sugar-has been used by our great grandparents.she hasn’t seen sugar for her whole life!
- Increased levels of junk food culture
- Substitution of processed food
- Bottled drinks- bottle drinks are nothing but a whole bottle of toxins which holds harmful chemicals and make our immune system weak.
We are used to our traditional diets from our ancestors. Sudden moderation of dosa to pizza and chutney to cheese have shocked our body’s metabolism.
6. Peekaboo by pharma companies
People go into panic attacks as soon as they saw their blood glucose levels have gone beyond normal and start their antidiabetic medications .These hyperglycemic agents alter the body’s metabolism and body becomes dependent on them.
7.Women suffering from PCOD are vulnerable to diabetes
One in five women in India develops PCOS according to a report published by metropolis healthcare,a chain of pathology laboratories.
People with pcod are more likely to develop diabetes. It is related to the imbalance in including insulin. Women with PCOD should have regular diabetic screenings.
8.Dont let the “pre” fool you!
It’s common and it’s reversible. Don’t delay prediabetes and get type 2.
“Approximately 84 million American adults develop prediabetes!” according to centers of disease control and prevention. The most worst part is that almost 90% of the them don’t know they have it! Could this be you?
This has proven to make people change their lifestyle and improves the quality of life.https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/prevention/index.html( centers of disease control and prevention)
9. Consanguineous marriage
It may cause transfer of two recessive defective alleles which results in causing diabetes. An increase in the incidence of parental consanguinity
was detected in series of cases of diabetes, in which the disease develop in early life.
10.Vitamin D deficiency
Due to limited sunlight exposure caused by a number of factors, including more time to spend at home or office increase the risk of diabetes.Vitamin D is believed to improve body’s sensitivity to insulin.
Some scientists also believe that sunlight exposure helps the pancreas to regulate the production of insulin.
However it is not known that maintaining the levels of vitamin D (60-80 ng/ml) can help keep blood glucose level under control.